However, where evolutionary histories have produced robust or flexible species, plant–pollinator interactions may persist during – or even benefit from – new climate regimes (Rafferty and Ives 2010; Stelzer et al. pp. Such findings illustrate the importance of studying impacts across levels of biological organization to obtain insight into pollinator losses. Conceptual framework illustrating (panels, a–d) the key pressures and (arrows, E–J) their interactions, as they affect pollinators. Threats to an ecosystem service: pressures on pollinators / Adam J Vanbergen; James The Insect Pollinator Initiative, incl. Threats to an ecosystem service: Pressures on pollinators by AJ Vandenburg and his co-authors was published today in the April 22 edition of Frontiers of Ecology and Environment. Such ecological changes could further affect human health, given that tropical plants are the source of many commercial nutritional supplements and could possess undiscovered medicinal properties as well (Eilers et al. Invasive bees and their impact on agriculture. Here, we argue that multiple anthropogenic pressures – including land-use intensification, climate change, and the spread of alien species and diseases – are primarily responsible for insect-pollinator declines. Aiding species dispersal with habitat networks and sowing flowering plants to minimize temporal and spatial gaps in pollinator sustenance will also lessen the impacts of climate change (Warren et al. For instance, the collective foraging, processing, and storage of food by the social honey bee (Apis mellifera) leads to the accumulation of agricultural pesticides, in addition to the acaricides used by beekeepers to combat parasitic mites in the hive (Johnson et al. Changes in land use can often lead to the elimination of certain pollinator species at local and regional scales, thereby altering the structure and function of plant–pollinator communities (Williams and Osborne 2009; Burkle et al. 2012). Why are pollinator declines hard to prove? Bee phenology is predicted by climatic variation and functional traits. 2010). Bombus terrestris 2009; Mao et al. 2011). Front Ecol Environ 2013; doi:10.1890/120126. Effects of community composition on plant–pollinator interaction networks across a spatial gradient of oak-savanna habitats. 2012). File name:- Vertical arrows show the most practical scale at which to study interactions between pressures. While the properties of pollinator networks (species redundancy, network structure, and behavioral flexibility) make them relatively robust, simulation models indicate that continued pollinator extinctions could lead to sudden crashes in plant diversity when highly connected species (ie that interact with many other species) go extinct (Kaiser‐Bunbury et al. . A validated workflow for rapid taxonomic assignment and monitoring of a national fauna of bees (Apiformes) using high throughput DNA barcoding. Importance of Insect Pollination 1.1. 2008) may lead to a spatial dislocation of processes like pollination. 2012) while providing a diversity of food sources in time and space (Pleasants 1980; Memmott et al. Pollinator declines could also have serious consequences for natural ecosystems. Working off-campus? This will facilitate answering community‐level questions, such as which pollinator species harbor which pests and pathogens (Singh et al. Landscapers working in urban areas should include initiatives for “re‐wilding” green spaces and promoting wildlife‐friendly gardening and beekeeping to better support pollinators (Stelzer et al. Integrating new understanding of the interactions between pathogens, toxins, and nutrition across levels of biological organization and ecological processes up to global scales (Figure 2) will better inform models that will enable the prediction of changes in pollination services under different scenarios. Providing an Ecosystem Service. 2010). How many flowering plants are pollinated by animals? Human population growth and industrial development have led to increased and unsustainable consumption of natural resources. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. 2010). Investigation across the full range of biological scales will improve our understanding of how various pressures interact to affect pollinators (Figure 2). Working off-campus? Pollinators are a key component of global biodiversity, providing vital ecosystem services to crops and wild plants. 2010). 2008; Highfield et al. 2011), although managed honey bees have increased elsewhere (Aizen and Harder 2009), Threats in tropical regions are real and pressing, but data on insect pollinator declines are sparse (Aizen and Feinsinger 1994; Freitas et al. Network modelling, citizen science and targeted interventions to predict, monitor and reverse bee decline. Neonicotinoid use on cereals and sugar beet is linked to continued low exposure risk in honeybees. Farmers’ Varieties and Ecosystem Services with Reference to Eastern India. Targeted use of other bee species (eg Bombus spp, Megachile spp, Osmia spp) for crop pollination services will reduce agricultural dependence on honey bees and thus minimize the risk of disease outbreaks compromising the ecosystem services that bees deliver (Kearns et al. Effects of ozone stress on flowering phenology, plant-pollinator interactions and plant reproductive success. Multiple, anthropogenic pressures threaten insect pollinators. 2013) and the learned ability of foraging workers to relocate the hive in honey bees (Henry et al. 2012) while providing a diversity of food sources in time and space (Pleasants 1980; Memmott et al. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. How can the extent of pollinator decline be determined? 2009; Cresswell 2011; Gill et al. Nosema bombi Species differences and multiple biological interactions (Keil et al. 2010) that may be exacerbated by intensified land use and climate change. Longitudinal analysis on parasite diversity in honeybee colonies: new taxa, high frequency of mixed infections and seasonal patterns of variation. Pollinator Communities of Restored Sandhills: a Comparison of Insect Visitation Rates to Generalist and Specialist Flowering Plants in Sandhill Ecosystems of Central Florida. Ecosystem services are being put at increasing risk from pressures exerted by both population growth and increasing per capita consumption. Landscape‐scale surveys of wild bees and butterflies show that species richness tends to be lower where pesticide loads and cumulative exposure risk are high (Brittain et al. Despite the aforementioned knowledge gaps, the pressure on pollinators can be reduced by promoting knowledge exchange, improving landscape management, reducing pesticide impacts, and combating diseases. Learn more. 2010b; Mao et al. (1) Improve understanding of basic pollinator ecology, Identify key pollinators of dominant and rare wild plant species (eg Kleijn and Raemakers 2008), Establish a causal link between floral resource availability and pollinator abundance/diversity at landscape scales, Improve measurement of pollinator species movement and pollination success among patchily distributed plants (eg Carvell et al. Effects of ozone stress on flowering phenology, plant-pollinator interactions and plant reproductive success. Global land‐use changes have led to declining diversity and abundance of flowering plants and the foods they provide to pollinators (Biesmeijer et al. Evidence on the multiple threats to pollinators must be included in joint decision making by government agencies, non‐governmental organizations, and agrichemical, food production, and retail industries. 2012), and queen production of bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) colonies (Whitehorn et al. Plant–pollinator network structural properties differentially affect pollen transfer dynamics and pollination success. Flower visitors in agricultural farms of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve: Do forests act as pollinator reservoirs?. Co‐infection with a diverse array of pathogens (viruses, bacteria, microsporidians) is the rule rather than the exception (eg Runckel et al. Investigating bee dietary preferences along a gradient of floral resources: how does resource use align with resource availability?. 2010; Dietzsch et al. 2012) and vital as we move toward integrated approaches to landscape management, which balance provisioning (eg food and timber supply) and other ecosystem services (eg pollination, pest regulation, water purification) to improve sustainable resource security. Interdisciplinary research on the nature and impacts of these interactions will be needed if human food security and ecosystem function are to be preserved. 2010), and alien (and horticultural) plants (Stelzer et al. As the evidence for pollinator decline has been thoroughly reviewed elsewhere (Kearns et al. Co‐infection with a diverse array of pathogens (viruses, bacteria, microsporidians) is the rule rather than the exception (eg Runckel et al. . Bee community response to local and landscape factors along an urban-rural gradient. Assessment of lethal and sublethal effects of imidacloprid, ethion, and glyphosate on aversive conditioning, motility, and lifespan in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Experimental evidence of warming-induced disease emergence and its prediction by a trait-based mechanistic model. Threats to an ecosystem service: pressures on pollinators. Exploring the importance of floral resources and functional trait compatibility for maintaining bee fauna in tropical agricultural landscapes. 2009). Detecting varroosis using a gas sensor system as a way to face the environmental threat. 2012). Habitat creation and restoration for pollinators will lessen the combined impacts of agricultural intensification, climate change, and – to some extent – pesticides and pathogens. Protecting an ecosystem service: approaches to understanding and mitigating threats to wild insect pollinators January 2016 Advances in Ecological Research 53(Part II) The global economic value of wild and managed pollination services was US$215 billion in 2005, representing 9.5% of global food production value when calculated as the increase in crop production attributable to insect pollination (Gallai et al. 2011) complicate the scenario by producing winners (eg generalist and highly dispersive species) and losers (eg specialists) in response to environmental change (Warren et al. Exploring the importance of floral resources and functional trait compatibility for maintaining bee fauna in tropical agricultural landscapes. 2009; Mao et al. Reproductive Biology and Conservation of the Living Rock Ariocarpus fissuratus. Vulnerability of Crop Pollination Ecosystem Services to Climate Change. 2010; Dicks et al. 2012). title = "Threats to an ecosystem service: Pressures on pollinators", abstract = "Insect pollinators of crops and wild plants are under threat globally and their decline or loss could have profound economic and environmental consequences. 2010). Mitigation of disease impacts on bees will require an integrated understanding of host–pathogen interactions and the role of vectors and alternative hosts (wild bees and other pollinators) in disease epidemiology. Non‐native plant species may co‐opt pollinators and come to dominate plant–pollinator interactions by providing abundant foods for those pollinators that are pre‐adapted to exploit them (Kleijn and Raemakers 2008; Pyšek et al. 2010). The Effectiveness of Varroa destructor Infestation Classification Using an E-Nose Depending on the Time of Day. Finally, we need to know how pollinator populations and communities will respond to direct (eg temperature) and indirect (eg plant and insect dispersal) climate‐change effects. A Conceptual Framework to Design Green Infrastructure: Ecosystem Services as an Opportunity for Creating Shared Value in Ground Photovoltaic Systems. 2001; Forister et al. Evaluation and comparison of the effects of three insect growth regulators on honey bee queen oviposition and egg eclosion. Policy and Practice Notes Note No. 2010b), so loss of food sources will increase individuals' vulnerability to infection (Figure 1e) and the effects will be amplified at colony or population scales. Space‐Based Observations for Understanding Changes in the Arctic‐Boreal Zone. Companion planting to attract pollinators increases the yield and quality of strawberry fruit in gardens and allotments. 2011; Core et al. The focus of this review is aimed at England (due to the statutory remit of Defra), but Depending on the overlap in flower phenology, alien plants may compete for (Dietzsch et al. How many flowering plants are pollinated by animals? This is achievable (see Dicks et al. The threat of the collapse in pollinating insect populations is confirmed as a worldwide problem according to the latest meta-review of research literature. Land-use change and intensification alters the habitats and landscapes that provide food and nesting resources for pollinators. Pollination of cycads in an urban environment. 2010a). Washington, DC 20036phone 202-833-8773email: esajournals@esa.org. Worldwide importance of insect pollination in apple orchards: A review. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. 2009; Runckel et al. Interventions such as improved bee husbandry (eg nutritional supplements) and innovative disease treatments (eg inoculation of bees with lactic‐acid bacteria that inhibit gut pathogens or molecular technology, such as RNA interference, to treat virus infection) could help limit pest and pathogen virulence (Moritz et al. Farmers’ Varieties and Ecosystem Services with Reference to Eastern India. 2012). This is achievable (see Dicks et al. The Varroa destructor mite is the primary vector of many viruses (Picornavirales) implicated in honey bee colony losses (Le Conte et al. Enter the password to open this PDF file: Cancel OK. Natural habitats support many wild pollinators, providing a resilient and complementary pollination service that increases crop yields (Kremen et al. A botanic garden as a tool to combine public perception of nature and life-science investigations on native/exotic plants interactions with local pollinators. 2010) and bumblebee (Williams and Osborne 2009; Bommarco et al. Investigation across the full range of biological scales will improve our understanding of how various pressures interact to affect pollinators (Figure 2). 2011), Obtain direct evidence of how changes in managed and wild pollinator densities impact crop and wild plant pollination (eg Kremen et al. 2010). 1998), most research has focused on their individual impacts and has overlooked the complex nature of the problem (Alaux et al. Nosema bombi Here, we consider managed (mainly honey bees [Apis spp] but also some captive‐reared bumblebee and solitary bee species) and wild (bumblebees, solitary bees, flies, butterflies, etc) insects with the potential to pollinate crops or wild plants. The resulting interrelated environmental pressures threaten global biodiversity and jeopardize the provision of crucial ecosystem services. Land-Use Intensity and Land-Use Change: Impacts on Biodiversity. 2010). It is advisable to refer to the publisher's version if you intend to cite from this work. This review is an output of the UK Insect Pollinators Initiative funded, under the auspices of the Living With Environmental Change partnership, by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, the Natural Environment Research Council, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, the Scottish Government, and the Wellcome Trust. Interactions between pests and pathogens, malnutrition, and pesticide exposure affecting pollinators across levels of biological organization; blue text indicates where some knowledge is available, and black text indicates knowledge gaps. We assess the implications of pollinator decline for ecosystem functioning and the services such insects deliver, and present a synthesis of recent advances in understanding of the individual and interacting impacts of different pressures on pollinators. Sublethal neonicotinoid exposure can impair brain function (Palmer et al. The cultivated area of insect‐dependent crops has increased worldwide, raising demand for insect pollination threefold since 1961 (Aizen and Harder 2009). 2009). Experimental infection of bumblebees with honeybee-associated viruses: no direct fitness costs but potential future threats to novel wild bee hosts. For example, vitamin A deficiency in humans is already common in many parts of the world and plants that depend partially or wholly on insect pollinators provide 70% of this micronutrient, with pollination increasing yields by about 43% in plant species able to self‐fertilize (Eilers et al. The honey bee is a suitable experimental species because it can be manipulated at many biological scales and its genome has been mapped (http://hymenopteragenome.org/). The impact of multiple pressures (black text) on pollinator species across levels of biological organization (blue text). The Future of Agricultural Landscapes, Part I. Molecular ecology as a tool for understanding pollination and other plant-insect interactions. Threats to an ecosystem service: pressures on pollinators / Adam J Vanbergen; James The Insect Pollinator Initiative, incl. The global economic value of wild and managed pollination services was US$215 billion in 2005, representing 9.5% of global food production value when calculated as the increase in crop production attributable to insect pollination (Gallai et al. Envisioning the future with ‘compassionate conservation’: An ominous projection for native wildlife and biodiversity. Insect pollinators of crops and wild plants are under threat globally and their decline or loss could have profound economic and environmental consequences. Many are crucial for the pollination of fruit, vegetable, oil, seed, and nut crops (Free 1993). Predicted thresholds for natural vegetation cover to safeguard pollinator services in agricultural landscapes. Although wind‐pollinated or largely self‐pollinated staple crops supply the vast majority of human foods by volume, insect‐pollinated crops contribute vital micronutrients (eg vitamins, folic acid) and dietary variety (Free 1993; Klein et al. Wildflower-pollinator interactions: which phytochemicals are involved?. 2009; Cresswell 2011; Henry et al. 2010). Surveillance programs of beekeeping operations remain crucial for combating disease spread and outbreaks that result from the movement of colonies and their products (Moritz et al. In addition, climate‐driven changes in pollinator food availability (Memmott et al. 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