• Big stained windows where light could easily come through, • Latin Cross is still the main shape used as floor plan. All the vaults are on a square plan, unlike the vault of Amiens cathedral, which is rectangular. Most Gothic churches have the Latin cross (or "cruciform") plan, with a long nave making the body of the church. The Greek-cross plan was widely used in Byzantine architecture and in Western churches inspired by Byzantine examples. In “Art Through the Ages”, authors describe the flying buttress as “like slender extended fingers holding up the walls”. Gothic architecture made a breakthrough of Romanesque style, using sprightly ogival or pointed arch, forceful spires and lots of narrow long windows instead of heavy shape, stability and semicircle arch,emphasis gothic churches’ verticality. The basilica becomes the landmark of the Vatican city of the day, the conspicuous dome made the most significant contribution to this result. But renaissance architects paid lots of attention on symmetry, proportion and geometry of buildings. There are some openings along bottom edge of the dome, which subdued light up the elegant painting inside of the dome. With the purpose of competition with other towns, or united for mutual weal, citizens had very high enthusiasm to built religious buildings. In this essay, I will study and compare two finest works from each era, Amiens Cathedral and Florence Cathedral, trying to find out the contrast of these two architecture styles through the angle of historical evolution on European architecture. The rose windows of Notre-Dame de Paris are particularly noteworthy. This created the Latin cross plan. Its capacity is 18,000 people against St. Peter’s 60,000. Amiens cathedral have a very standardized gothic church’s Latin cross or “cruciform” plan. In the book Mr Standfast, John Buchan has his character Richard Hannay describe the Amiens cathedral as being “the noblest church that the hand of man ever built for God.”( John,1960). In Raphael’s design, he added a row of complex apsidal chapels off the aisles on either side. Amiens cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral. The interior aesthetics rely on light and shade contrast by the effect of colourful windows. Gothic architecture is the zenith of European medieval architecture. London: Penguin Books, 1960, Huihua HUANG, the difference characteristics between gothic architecture and renaissance architecture, 2004, Flying buttress, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flying_buttress, 2009, Richard TANSEV , Fred S. KLEINER, Horst De LA CROIX, Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 1995, http://www.tudorhistory.org/glossaries/f/flying_buttress.html, Stan PARRY, the key elements of gothic architecture , http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Arts/Architec/MiddleAgesArchitectural/GothicArchitecture/KeyElementsGothicArchitecture/KeyElementsGothicArchitecture.htm, “Claims made that the Basilica of Our Lady of Peace of Yamoussoukro in Africa is larger appear to be spurious, as the measurements include a rectorate, a villa and probably the forecourt. They represent their time and nation, becoming a specific language. It is famous for its architectural statues, steep gables, blind tracery and unifying series … The plan of Gothic cathedrals and churches was usually based on the Latin cross (or "cruciform") plan, taken from the ancient Roman Basilica., and from the later Romanesque churches. Furthermore, the strong sunlight contrasts with the shading space, creating a saintly feeling. A Latin cross plan is a floor plan found in many cathedrals and churches. Europe was divided into a multitude of city states and kingdoms at the end of the 12th century. nave. From then on, the whole Europe went into the renaissance. Gothic architecture emphasizes its verticality. Beyond a transverse arm called the transept, there is an extension which may be called the choir, chancel or presbytery. The influence of religious symbolism on church planning was evident in the plan (Latin cross or cruciform), the structure (Gothic arch pointing towards heaven and the rib vault that made this possible), the soaring height (House of God) and the importance given to light (divine illumination). In Western architecture: Early Renaissance in Italy (1401–95) …for medieval churches was the Latin cross plan, as at San Lorenzo; the longer arm of the cross formed the nave of the church. St. Peter’s Basilica is located within the Vatican City. The renaissance architecture appeared from the 15th century Florence, Italy, and then it spread to other European countries like France, Germany, England, Russia and elsewhere quickly, and formed regional renaissance architecture styles. Wikipedia, Renaissance architecture, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renaissance_architecture,2009. Ribbed Vault with Flying Buttresses. After many interruptions, it was completed according to the original Latin cross plan in 1880. Latin-cross Plan A church plan with one arm longer than the other three. In France and other countries entering into the Middle Ages cathedrals were renovated from drab fortresses to Gothic masterpieces of stained glass and natural sculpture. Introducing Textbook Solutions. Because of Germany and the Lowlands were in comparative peace, emerged lots of large flourishing towns. A cross shaped building plan, incorporating a long arm and three shorter arms. For a summary of the emergence of these designs, see Church Anatomy. In my point of view, the pointed arch in Amiens cathedral gives a mysterious impression, but on the other hand, the renaissance semi-circular arch accidently gives people a shock of god. The dome of St Peter’s basilica is the tallest point of the Vatican City. In brief, we can find that, both the gothic and renaissance architecture, the style of architecture changed and fit the rulers taste, as a result, influence on the architecture style of that age. These buildings will commonly be of the Latin cross (or “cruciform”) plan… transept. (Huihua, 2004) The Western portals of the Amiens cathedral have a lot of outstanding elegant art works. These characteristics application, aimed to create a powerful impression on the approaching people, indicating the might of God and the might of the institution that it represents. They were necessitated by the. Romanesque art is characterised by the purity of its lines, and by simplicity and austerity. They do not like columns have supportive function, they are purely decoration purpose. The bar tracery of a High Gothic rose window, consisted of a series of radiating forms, each tipped by a pointed arch at the outside of the, circle. The flying buttress outside the clerestory walls, decreasing the solidity of structure virtually, made the cathedra looked as being suspended from heaven. Gothic architecture started in 12th-century France and lasted for 4 centuries, into the 16th. So gothic architecture and renaissance architecture were both influenced by the particular politic, economy, culture and art of the time. Latter Bramante was replaced with Giuliano da Sangallo, Fra Giocondo and Raphael. Gothic architecture is a style that originated in twelfth century France and lasted into the sixteenth. Plan Most Gothic churches, unless they are entitled chapels, are of the Latin cross (or "cruciform") plan, with a long nave making the body of the church, a transverse arm called the transept and, beyond it, an extension which may be called the choir, chancel or presbytery. Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. Usually made of brass. The ribbed vault is made by combining three separate but connected arches. It cannot deny that Michelangelo made greatest contribution to the design of the basilica. Amiens cathedral, just like the mostly French churches use limestone as material. Like other French cathedrals, Amiens cathedral is emphasis its height, both real and proportional. Baptistry: A room or building for Christian baptismal rites. Openings on the top of dome let bright sunlight goes straight into the interior of the basilica, light up the interior room naturally. They are used in arcades, supported on piers or columns with capitals. In churches of Western European tradition, the plan is usually longitudinal, in the form of the so-called Latin Cross with a long nave crossed by a transept. great abutments. Especially their elaborate sculpture, featuring a gallery of locally-important saints and large eschatological scenes are justly famous. St Peter’s basilica can be though as one of the most outstanding religious renaissance buildings. It has a very high status of Christian churches, and it is regarded as one of the holiest Christian sites. Large areas were covered by stone vaults supported on slender stone piers. Stained Glass windows. The cross is the most powerful symbol in Christianity. The Latin cross plans have a nave with aisles or chapels, or both and a transept that forms the arms of the cross. It is a world famous Gothic architecture measuring 144.5 meters in length and 86.5 meters in width with 157-meter tall towers. It is the most prominent building inside the Vatican City. Furth more, it also played a role to balance the network of interior vaults ribs to give the same impression of a tent-like canopy over the congregation (www.wikipdia.com, 2009). And the vaults without ribs continue follow the semi-circular or segmental shape. The 16 pairs of 15 meters height columns visually buttress each of the ribs, but actually they are redundant in structure of the dome. People tried to understand ancient Greeks’ understand of human body. The Gothic grew out of the Romanesque architectural style, when both prosperity and peace allowed for several centuries of cultural development and great building schemes. But in some gothic architecture, it comes to become a kind of decoration of building. General Features. The 42.30 m height nave is even considerably taller than the width. : Area of the church between the transept and main apse. Lectern A reading desk, often in the shape of an eagle, made to hold the Bible during services. The Gothic style became prevalent in European religious architecture in the 11th century and has been revived and improved upon in countless cathedrals all over the world. The great architecture of medieval Europe was predominantly sacred.The primary sacred building type of Europe is the church, a structure for Christian worship.The most prevalent church layouts are the Latin cross church (in Western Europe) and central-plan church (in Eastern Europe). (Wim, 1985). The long nave makes the body of the cathedral. As the same as mostly gothic architecture, the ceiling of Amiens cathedral is left open. Beyond a transverse arm called the transept, there is an extension which may be called the choir, chancel or presbytery. The St Peter’s Basilica took almost 120 years to finish. One of the defining characteristics of Gothic architecture is the pointed or ogival arch. Those buildings were importance to these towns, represented wealth and pride. Romanesque Church of St Climent de Taüll, 1123 AD, Catalonia, Spain. ambulatory. Few of domestic houses were gothic style. The concept of the 4 piers remained unchanged. Throughout Europe archived its heyday because of the rapid growth in trade and the development of artisan industry, and an associated growth in towns (Banister, 1975 & John 1950). In Amiens cathedral, rose windows can be found above the entrance and transept. and as “the greatest of all churches of Christendom” by Fletcher (FLETCHER .B, 1996, p. 719). From here we see that architecture, as the symbol of the age, also can presents the characteristics of the society. rose windows. The churches usually have a Latin cross ground plan and three naves, the central of which is higher and wider than those at the side. Romanesque and Gothic Architecture Art and architecture during the medieval period is remembered because of several reasons, one of which is the way it changed after the Roman Empire disintegrated. Most Gothic churches have the Latin cross (or “cruciform”) plan, with a long nave making the body of the church. Greek-cross plan, church plan in the form of a Greek cross, with a square central mass and four arms of equal length. ( TANSEV. This is the rose window above the west entrance of the Amiens cathedral. Chartres was the first building on which buttresses were used as a structural element that, determined the overall external appearance of the building. unprecedented size of the clerestory windows and the height of the nave. Rose windows are applied widely in the design of gothic churches. Greek cross- the plans of SS. Plan Most Gothic churches, unless they are entitled chapels, are of the Latin cross (or "cruciform") plan, with a long nave making the body of the church, a transverse arm called the transept and, beyond it, an extension which may be called the choir, chancel or presbytery. The plan of the Gothic cathedral is a Latin cross with three aisles, a short transept and an ambulatory. And the semi-circular apses more clearly defined by encircling each with an ambulatory (Wikipedia). No matter the engineering technologies or the means of artistic expression both achieved an unprecedented level, and hence came the golden time of European religious architecture. During the Middle Ages this plan was considered a symbolic reference to the cross of Christ. https://quadralectics.wordpress.com/.../3-3-1-2-2-the-latin-cross-type It covers 2.3 hectares with a capacity of over 60,000 people. The Gothic style succeeded the Romanesque style, which had a more robust appearance and focused on more open spaces, the use of stone as a construction material, and verticalit… Martina e Luca) Rotunda- the plans of S. Bernardo alle Terme Latin cross plan- building process of S. Pietro in Vaticano 38. 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